Categories
BLOG

do flowering plants have seeds

Do flowering plants have seeds

Flowering plants are a type of vascular plant that produces flowers in order to reproduce. Flowering plants produce seeds within a fruit. The scientific name for flowering plants is angiosperms.

Life-cycle of a Flowering Plant

Flowering plants follow a specific life cycle.

  • Seed – They begin their lives as seeds. Seeds are like baby plants. They have a hard outer shell that protects the seed embryo inside.
  • Germination – The seed ends up on the ground. It needs air, water, and soil to grow. When a seed begins to grow, this is called germination. The first growth will usually be some small roots. Then stems will grow.
  • Sprout or seedling – When the first sign of life appears above the soil, this is called a sprout or seedling.
  • Mature plant – The seedling will continue to grow into a full mature plant with leaves, roots, and stems.
  • Flowering – The mature plant will grow flowers. Through pollination, the flowers will produce seeds. When the seeds end up on the ground, the cycle will begin again.

Flowers are the reproductive organs of the flowering plant.

The main structures of a flower include:

  • Sepal – The sepal is a support structure for the petal. It is typically green and helps to protect and hold up the petal. All the sepals together are called the calyx.
  • Petal – The petals are the bright colorful leaves of the flower. The petals are often bright and colorful in order to attract insects that help with pollination. All of the petals together are called the corolla.
  • Stamen – The stamen is the part of the flower that produces pollen. There are two main parts of the stamen: the filament and anther.
  • Filament – The filament is the stalk that holds the anther.
  • Anther – The anther is made up of lobes that attach to the filament. These lobes hold sacs which contain pollen.
  • Pistil – The pistil is the female part of the flower. It contains the carpel and the stigma.
  • Stigma – The stigma is the area where pollen is received. The stigma may be located at the end of a stalk called the style.
  • Carpel – The carpel is the ovary of the flower and contains ovules which are potential seeds.

Fruits are a way which many plants spread their seeds. Fruits are formed after the flower is fertilized with pollen. The ovules in the pistil will become seeds and the flower will transform into a fruit.

The seed is the embryo of a plant. Sort of like a baby plant. Seeds come in all sizes shapes and colors depending on the type of plant. Inside the seed is a plant embryo, food for the embryo, and a seed coat to protect it.

Seeds may be dispersed by a number of ways including air, water, and animals. Some seeds are light and have hairs or wings that help them to float in the air. Other seeds can float on the water and disperse by riding on rivers and streams. Still other seeds have tasty fruit that animals eat and then get dispersed in the animals’ droppings.

Pollination

In order for an ovary to become a seed, it must receive pollen. Insects and birds can play an important role in pollinating plants. When an insect or bird is attracted to a flower by its bright color, they get pollen on them. As they move from plant to plant, they move the pollen from one plant to another. This helps the plants to reproduce by creating seeds.

Kids learn about flowering plants in the science of biology including their life-cycle, structures of a flower, fruit, seeds, and pollination.

DK Science: Seed Plants

Most plants grow from seeds. These seed plants fall into two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. Their seeds develop inside a female reproductive part of the flower, called the ovary, which usually ripens into a protective FRUIT. Gymnosperms (conifers, Ginkgo, and cycads) do not have flowers or ovaries. Their seeds mature inside cones. Seeds may be carried away from the parent plant by wind, water, or animals.

Dandelion seeds have feathery parachutes to help them fly far from their parent plant. A dandelion flower is actually made up of many small flowers, called florets. Each develops a single fruit. The fruits form inside the closed-up seed head, after the yellow petals have withered away. When the weather is dry, the seed head opens, revealing a ball of parachutes. The slightest breeze lifts the parachutes into the air.

INSIDE A SEED

A seed is the first stage in the life cycle of a plant. Protected inside the tough seed coat, or testa, is the baby plant, called an embryo. Food, which fuels germination and growth, is either packed around the embryo or stored in special seed leaves, called cotyledons.

SPREADING WITHOUT SEEDS

Seeds are not the only means of reproduction. Some plants create offshoots of themselves – in the form of bulbs, tubers, corms, or rhizomes – that can grow into new plants. This type of reproduction is called vegetative reproduction. As only one parent plant is needed, the offspring is a clone of its parent.

A bulb is an underground bud with swollen leaf bases. Its food store allows flowers and leaves to grow quickly. New bulbs develop around the old one.

Tuber

A tuber is a swollen stem or root with buds on its surface. When conditions are right, the tuber’s food store allows the buds to grow.

A corm is a swollen underground stem that provides energy for a growing bud. After the food in the old corm is used up, a new corm forms above it.

Rhizome

A rhizome is a horizontal stem that grows underground or on the surface. It divides and produces new buds and shoots along its branches.

GERMINATION OF A RUNNER BEAN

Most seeds require damp, warm conditions in order to sprout. During germination, the seed absorbs water and the embryo starts to use its food store. A young root, or radicle, begins to grow downward. Then a young shoot, or plumule, grows upward. This develops into the stem and produces leaves. The first leaves, called seed leaves or cotyledons, fuel the early growth until the plant’s true leaves appear.

FRUITS

A flower’s ovary usually develops into a fruit to protect the seeds and help disperse them. A fruit may be succulent (fleshy) or dry. Fruit is often tasty and colourful to attract fruit-eating animals. Its seeds can pass through an animal unharmed, falling to the ground in droppings. Seeds may also be dispersed on animals’ coats, by the wind, or by the fruit bursting open.

DRY FRUITS

The seeds of dry fruits are dispersed in various ways. Peapods are dry fruits that split and shoot out their seeds by force. The hogweed fruit forms a papery wing around the seed, helping it to float on the breeze. The strawberry is a false fruit, but it is covered by tiny dry fruits, each with a seed.

SUCCULENT FRUITS

Fleshy, brightly coloured, and often scented, succulent fruits are designed to attract the animals that eat and disperse them. Fleshy fruits such as apricots and cherries have a woody stone or pip that protects the seed. Called drupes, these fruits form from a single ovary. Many drupes, formed from many ovaries, may cluster to form a compound fruit, such as a raspberry.

Most plants grow from seeds. These seed plants fall into two groups, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Angiosperms are the flowering plants. Their seeds de