Dove Weed Seed

Doveweed (Murdannia nudiflora) has become a troublesome weed in home lawns during the last few years. It is a summer annual weed, and its seeds germinate… Doveweed Doveweed or turkey mullein ( Croton setiger ) is a low growing, native annual that thrives in dry, disturbed, open places, such as on Stonebridge Mesa. Even from a distance it can be Dove Weed Seed Doveweed (Turkey mullein) The foliage, as with many other euphorbs, is toxic; so the plants were used by native Americans to stupefy fish to make them easier to catch. The seeds

Doveweed

Doveweed (Murdannia nudiflora) has become a troublesome weed in home lawns during the last few years. It is a summer annual weed, and its seeds germinate during the late spring when soil temperatures reach 65 to 70 °F. Doveweed leaves are thick, shiny, and up to 4-inches long with parallel veins. Because of its long, grass-like foliage, doveweed is often overlooked in St. Augustinegrass or centipedegrass lawns. Doveweed spreads aggressively within the lawn by thick aboveground, creeping stems, called stolons.

Doveweed is in the Commelinaceae (dayflower) plant family and is related to the invasive spiderworts (Tradescantia species), as well as the highly invasive Benghal dayflower (Commelina benghalensis).

The flowers of doveweed have three lavender petals and three green sepals.
Close-up of Bugwood photo 5568065. Rebekah D. Wallace, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

Doveweed thrives in overly moist soils because of poor soil drainage or frequent rainfall and irrigation. In these wet areas, homeowners may not realize this grass-like weed is present until large patches of turfgrass have been smothered out. In summer, doveweed produces small, 3-petaled, lavender flowers that, when in bloom, become more noticeable in the lawn.

After flowering, seeds are produced in small, 3/16-inch diameter green capsules. Doveweed seed can remain viable for several years on the soil before germinating.

Cultural Controls: Limit doveweed growth by maintaining a healthy and dense turfgrass. Water the lawn deeply but infrequently to allow the surface soils to dry in between watering. This will improve turfgrass root depth and slow the spread of the doveweed. For more information on irrigation, please see HGIC 1207, Watering Lawns. Additionally, correct any drainage problems to reduce wet areas within the lawn. Core aerate the lawn to improve internal soil drainage, reduce soil compaction, and aid in root growth. For more information on core aeration, please see HGIC 1200, Aerating Lawns.

Have the soil tested and follow soil test recommendations for rates of fertilizers and lime. These recommendations are specific for each turfgrass species. Please see HGIC 1652, Soil Testing, for sampling procedures.

Mow the lawn at the correct height for the turfgrass species. An excessively low mowing height both stresses the turfgrass and may cause the mower to cut and spread pieces of doveweed stolons that can easily root under moist conditions. Conversely, a lawn mowed at the correct height encourages dense turfgrass growth and partially shades the doveweed. For the recommended turfgrass mowing heights, please see HGIC 1205, Mowing Lawns.

If the lawn thatch layer is greater than ½ inch, consider dethatching the lawn at the appropriate time. For more information about dethatching, please see HGIC 2360, Controlling Thatch in Lawns.

Hand pulling of doveweed is ineffective as a control method because pieces of roots and stolons that remain can re-sprout.

Chemical Control: Managing doveweed in a lawn may require two to three years of pre-and post-emergence herbicide use.

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Post-emergence Herbicides: Use atrazine on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass for good to excellent control of doveweed. Apply atrazine after full turfgrass greened-up in late spring. Atrazine also has a pre-emergence activity to stop additional weed seed germination. Make a second application a month later, if needed. Do not apply atrazine to a drought-stressed lawn or if the daily temperatures are over 90 °F. Also, do not apply atrazine near a water source or if there is a high water table.

Use 3-way combination herbicides for broadleaf weed control that contain 2,4-D, dicamba, and mecoprop (MCPP) on bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and tall fescue. Apply a follow-up application 30 days later, if needed. Use a reduced herbicide rate on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass, according to label directions. The 3-way herbicides provide fair to good control of doveweed. Do not use atrazine or 3-way herbicides during spring green-up of the four warm-season turfgrasses (bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, centipedegrass, and St. Augustinegrass).

Celsius WG provides good control of doveweed on the four warm-season turfgrasses. Do not use Celsius WG on tall fescue lawns. Additionally, Celsius WG is the only product that can be used on warm-season lawns during their spring green-up. If a second application is needed, wait 2 to 4 weeks after the first application.

Treat large areas with doveweed with little or no turfgrass with a 3% glyphosate spray. Products containing 41% glyphosate are available with instructions for diluting in a pump-up sprayer. Re-sod after the doveweed is eliminated.

See Table 1 below for examples of brands and products, including more notes on the use of atrazine, 3-way herbicides, Celsius WG, and glyphosate.

Pre-emergence Herbicides: Apply the first application of a pre-emergence herbicide during the spring and a repeat application during the early summer to prevent doveweed seed from sprouting. Indaziflam (Specticle G), like many pre-emergence herbicides, stops root formation of both weeds and desirable turfgrasses; therefore, follow the label directions for use. Do not apply Specticle G to a lawn seeded less than 16 months prior to application, nor to a lawn sodded less than 3 months before application. If Specticle G is applied to the lawn, wait at least 6 months before laying new sod in the same area. Note that lower rates of Specticle G are recommended on centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass. See Table 1 below for more information.

Since doveweed seeds germinate when the soil temperatures reach 65 to 70 °F, make the first application of pre-emergence herbicide in mid-April in the Upstate with a repeat application 45 days later. In the Midlands, apply the first application around April 1 with a repeat application 45 days later. In the coastal areas, make the first application in late March with a repeat application 45 days later. Water granular applications into the lawn. However, if the lawn has bare areas over which the turfgrass must spread and become rooted, eliminate the second application for better turfgrass root formation.

Table 1. Examples of Herbicides for Doveweed Management in Residential Turfgrass.

Brands & Specific Products Herbicide Active Ingredient % Active Ingredient
in Product
Labeled for Use On
Pre-emergence Herbicides
Specticle G 1 Indaziflam 0.0224 Tall Fescue
Bermudagrass
Zoysiagrass
Centipedegrass
& St.
Augustinegrass
Post-emergence Herbicides
Bayer BioAdvanced Southern Weed Killer for Lawns Concentrate; & RTS 2 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
7.59
1.83
0.84
Tall Fescue
Bermudagrass
& ZoysiagrassUse at lower label rate on:
Centipedegrass
& St.
AugustinegrassApplications may be repeated as needed after 30 days.
Bonide Weed Beater Lawn Weed Killer Concentrate 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
7.59
1.83
0.84
Spectracide Weed Stop for Lawn Concentrate; & RTS 2 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
7.59
1.83
0.84
Ferti-lome Weed-Out Lawn Weed Killer Concentrate with Trimec 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
5.88
5.45
1.21
Southern Ag Lawn Weed Killer with Trimec Concentrate 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
3.05
5.30
1.29
Gordon’s Trimec Ready to Spray Lawn Weed Killer Concentrate; & RTS 1 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
5.56
1.34
0.62
Ortho Weed Be Gon Lawn Weed Killer Concentrate; & RTS 2 2,4-D
Mecoprop
Dicamba
8.658
2.127
0.371
Ortho WeedClear Weed Killer for Lawns Concentrate 2,4-D
MCPP
Dicamba
8.658
2.217
0.371
Tall Fescue
Bermudagrass
ZoysiagrassApplication may be repeated in 21 days
Hi-Yield Atrazine Weed Killer Atrazine 4.00 Only for use on
Centipedegrass
& St.
Augustinegrass
Southern Ag Atrazine St. Augustine Weed Killer Conc. Atrazine 4.00
Celsius WG Herbicide 3 Thiencarbazone
Iodosulfuron
Dicamba
8.7
1.9
57.4
Bermudagrass
Zoysiagrass
Centipedegrass& St. Augustinegrass 4
Non-Selective Herbicides
Ace Concentrate Weed & Grass Killer Glyphosate 41% (most brands) For use within the lawn as spot spraying to kill large patches of doveweed. Then re-sod or re-seed these areas after doveweed is dead (at least 1 week later).
Bonide Kleenup Grass & Weed Killer Concentrate; & Ready to Use
Eliminator Weed & Grass Killer Super Concentrate
Gordon’s Groundwork Concentrate 50% Super Weed & Grass Killer
Hi-Yield Super Concentrate Killzall Weed & Grass Killer
Knockout Weed & Grass Killer Super Concentrate
Martin’s Eraser Systemic Weed & Grass Killer
Monterey Remuda Full Strength 41% Glyphosate Quick Kill Grass & Weed Killer
Roundup Original Concentrate
Roundup Pro Herbicide
Southern States Grass & Weed Killer Concentrate II
Tiger Brand Quick Kill Conc.
Total Kill Pro Weed & Grass Killer Herbicide
Ultra Kill Weed & Grass Killer Concentrate
Zep Enforcer Weed Defeat Concentrate
1 Specticle G is for use on well-established lawns, at least 16 months since the lawn was seeded or 3 months since sodded. Do not install sod in an area for at least 6 months after this pre-emergence application to the lawn. Use the lower rate of 2.9 pounds per 1000 square feet of lawn if soils are sandy, as indaziflam may leach downward and cause turfgrass injury.
2 RTS: Ready-to-Spray (hose-end sprayer)
3 Celsius WG requires the addition of 2 teaspoons of a non-ionic surfactant (such as Hi-Yield Spreader Sticker), which is a wetter-sticker agent to aid in weed control and added at 0.25% by volume in a gallon of water.
4 Spot treatments of Celsius WG to St. Augustinegrass at temperatures above 90 degrees may cause temporary growth regulation. Celsius WP is not for use on fescue lawns.
Note: Do not apply any post-emergence herbicides, except Celsius WG Herbicide, to lawns during the spring green-up of turfgrass. Wait until the turfgrass is fully green.
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Pesticides are updated annually. Last updates were done on 8/21 by Joey Williamson.

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at [email protected] or 1-888-656-9988.

Author(s)

Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University

This information is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of brand names or registered trademarks by the Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service is implied, nor is any discrimination intended by the exclusion of products or manufacturers not named. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed.

Doveweed

Doveweed or turkey mullein (Croton setiger) is a low growing, native annual that thrives in dry, disturbed, open places, such as on Stonebridge Mesa. Even from a distance it can be recognized by the low, tidy mounds of pale green foliage, themselves evenly spaced out into large patches and fields.

The small flowers lack petals and are inconspicuous. The seeds are an important food source for small mammals and birds (including, as the common names suggests, doves and turkeys).

Species from the genus Croton should not be confused with the colorful, tropical houseplant with the common name croton (Codiaeum variegatum).

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Other Common Names:

dove weed, turkey mullein

Description

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Doveweed is a small, neat greenish-gray plant that forms small mats or mounds; ours are usually less than a few inches high and two feet wide. The plant has a deep taproot, and it is regularly branched outward from a basal point. The leaves are rounded triangular to oval, with three prominent veins; they are reported to three inches (8 cm) long. All parts of the plant are covered with dense pale hairs. Most hairs are star shaped with many arms of similar length, others are similar but with a long, bristly hair emerging from the center. Minute glandular hairs beneath star shaped hairs give the plant a distinctive, not unpleasant odor. The hairs can irritate the skin.

Plants in the Reserve tend to occur in large, distinctive patches with individual clumps of one or a few plants well separated from one another.

Male and female structures occur on separate flowers on the same plant (they are monoecious). Both sexes are inconspicuous. Male flowers are 1/8 to 1/4 (0.4 cm) across, in small groups at the ends of branches. They lack petals. The calyx is green and cup-shaped, usually with five lobes. There are 6-10 stamens exserted beyond the calyx with cream colored anthers and pollen. The female flowers occur in groups of one to a few in the axils beneath the male flowers. Female flowers lack both sepals and petals. There is one pistil with a plump, oblong, one-chambered ovary and one usually thread-like style, often curved or coiled. The main flowering period is May – October. 7

The fruit is a dried capsule that splits into two valves from the tip. The outer wall of the capsule consists of two structures and appears two-layered. There is usually a single seed, about 1/8 inch (3-4 mm) long; it is a smooth ellipsoid, somewhat triangular in cross section and variously mottled or striped in tans, browns or grays, or occasionally solid.

Stonebridge Mesa | June 2019

Stellate hairs; longer central bristle is 0.1 inches | Stonebridge Mesa | Sept. 2019

Dove Weed Seed

Doveweed (Turkey mullein)

The foliage, as with many other euphorbs, is toxic; so the plants were used by native Americans to stupefy fish to make them easier to catch. The seeds are not toxic to birds and are enjoyed especially by doves and wild turkeys. Two different seed colors are produced by individual plants and it is thought that mourning doves, one of the main foragers on this plant, choose only one color form to eat, leaving the other to germinate later.